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Meanwhile, the 3rd Reserve Division had engaged the Russians' XXII Corps even further south, and after a fierce battle forced them to fall back southeastward; its commander wired Rennenkampf he had been attacked and defeated near Lyck, and could do nothing but withdraw. Rennenkampf ordered a counteroffensive in the north to buy time to reform his lines, managing to push the German XX Corps back a number of miles. However, the Germans did not stop to reform their lines but instead continued their advances in the south and north. This left the victorious Russian troops isolated but still able to retreat to new lines being set up in the east.
Now the battle turned decisively in the Germans' favor. By 11 September the Russians had been pushed back to a line running from Insterburg to Angerburg in the north, with a huge flanking maneuver developing to the south. It was at this point that the threat of encirclement appeared possible. Rennenkampf ordered a general retreat toward the Russian border, which happened rapidly under the protection of a strong rear guard. It was this speed that enabled the retreating Russian troops to escape the trap Hindenburg had planned for them. The German commander had ordered his wings to quicken their march as much as possible, but a trivial accident—a rumor of a Russian counterattack—cost the Germans half a day's march, allowing the Russians to escape to the east. These reached Gumbinnen the next day, and Stallupönen on the 13th. The remains of the First Army retreated to the safety of their own border forts. Likewise, the Tenth Army was forced back into Russia. German casualties were about 40,000, Russian 100,000. This was a strategically significant victory for The Eighth Army, completely destroying the Second Army, mauling the First, and ejecting all Russian troops from German soil. Meanwhile, new German corps (under von der Goltz) were able to use this movement to safely move into position to harass the scattered remains of the Second Army, while far to the southwest the new German Ninth was forming up. It would not be long before they were able to face the Russians in a position of numerical superiority.
However, this advantage was bought at a cost: the newly arrived corps had been sent from the Western front and their absence would be felt in the upcoming Battle of the Marne. Much of the territory taken by the Germans would later be lost to a Russian counterattack during 25–28 September.
Around the same time far south on the Eastern Front, Russian forces routed the Austro-Hungarian army. It took another year before the German and Austro-Hungarian forces were finally able to reverse the Russian advances, pushing them out of Galicia and then Russian Poland.

投稿日時 - 2019-06-09 03:04:38

QNo.9624185

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>Meanwhile, the 3rd Reserve Division had engaged the Russians' XXII Corps even further south, and after a fierce battle forced them to fall back southeastward; its commander wired Rennenkampf he had been attacked and defeated near Lyck, and could do nothing but withdraw. Rennenkampf ordered a counteroffensive in the north to buy time to reform his lines, managing to push the German XX Corps back a number of miles. However, the Germans did not stop to reform their lines but instead continued their advances in the south and north. This left the victorious Russian troops isolated but still able to retreat to new lines being set up in the east.
⇒その(包囲の)間、第3予備師団はさらに南でロシア第XXII軍団と会戦し、激しい戦闘の後、南東に後退することを余儀なくされた。その指揮官は、リィクの近くで攻撃されて敗北したので、撤退することしかできないことをレネンカンプフに電信連絡した。レネンカンプフは、北部での戦線を改革する時間をとるために攻撃を命じ、ようやくドイツ第XX軍団を何マイルも押し戻した。しかし、ドイツ軍は戦線の改革をやめず、南と北に振り替えて進軍を続けた。これは勝利したロシア軍を孤立させたが、それでも彼らはまだ東に設置している新しい戦線に後退することができた。

>Now the battle turned decisively in the Germans' favor. By 11 September the Russians had been pushed back to a line running from Insterburg to Angerburg in the north, with a huge flanking maneuver developing to the south. It was at this point that the threat of encirclement appeared possible. Rennenkampf ordered a general retreat toward the Russian border, which happened rapidly under the protection of a strong rear guard. It was this speed that enabled the retreating Russian troops to escape the trap Hindenburg had planned for them.
⇒今や戦いはドイツ軍にとって優位が決定的となった。9月11日までに、ロシア軍は北のインステルブルクからアウゲルブルクまで走る線に押し戻された。この地点で、囲い込みの脅威がありそうに見えた。レネンカンプフがロシアの国境に向かって総退却を命じたところ、それは強力な後衛部の保護の下で急速に進んだ。退却するロシア軍が、ヒンデンブルクの計画した罠を逃れられるのは、このスピードならではのことであった。

>The German commander had ordered his wings to quicken their march as much as possible, but a trivial accident—a rumor of a Russian counterattack—cost the Germans half a day's march, allowing the Russians to escape to the east. These reached Gumbinnen the next day, and Stallupönen on the 13th. The remains of the First Army retreated to the safety of their own border forts. Likewise, the Tenth Army was forced back into Russia. German casualties were about 40,000, Russian 100,000.
⇒ドイツ軍司令官は、可能な限り彼らの行進を早めるよう両翼に命じたが、ある些細な事故 ―ロシア軍の反撃の噂― でドイツ軍は半日行進を(無為に)費したので、ロシア軍は東逃することが可能になった。それで、翌日にグンビネンに到着し、そして13日にスタルポネンに着いた。第1方面軍の残り兵は、彼ら自身の安全のために国境沿いの砦に後退した。同様に、第10方面軍はロシア軍に押し戻された。ドイツ軍の死傷者は約40,000人、ロシアのそれは100,000人であった。

>This was a strategically significant victory for The Eighth Army, completely destroying the Second Army, mauling the First, and ejecting all Russian troops from German soil. Meanwhile, new German corps (under von der Goltz) were able to use this movement to safely move into position to harass the scattered remains of the Second Army, while far to the southwest the new German Ninth was forming up. It would not be long before they were able to face the Russians in a position of numerical superiority.
⇒これは第8方面軍にとって戦略的に重要な勝利であり、第2方面軍を完全に破壊し、第1方面軍を征服し、そして全ロシア軍をドイツの地から追放した。その間、新しい(フォン・デル・ゴルツ麾下の)ドイツ軍団は安全な陣地に移動することができた上に、この動きを使って散在する第2方面軍の生き残り兵を苦しめた。彼らが数的優位の立場でロシア軍と対決できるようになるまでには、さほど長くはかからないだろう。

>However, this advantage was bought at a cost: the newly arrived corps had been sent from the Western front and their absence would be felt in the upcoming Battle of the Marne. Much of the territory taken by the Germans would later be lost to a Russian counterattack during 25–28 September.
 Around the same time far south on the Eastern Front, Russian forces routed the Austro-Hungarian army. It took another year before the German and Austro-Hungarian forces were finally able to reverse the Russian advances, pushing them out of Galicia and then Russian Poland.
⇒しかしながら、この利点は犠牲を払って手に入れた。すなわち、新しく到着した軍団は西部戦線から送られてきたので、そちらでの兵の不在が来るべき「マルヌの戦い」で痛感されることになったのである。ドイツ軍が占領した領土の大部分は、その後9月25-28日にロシア軍の反撃で失われることになる。
 ほぼ同じ頃、東部戦線のはるか南では、ロシア軍がオーストリア‐ハンガリー軍を打ち負かした。ドイツ軍とオーストリア・ハンガリー軍がその後最終的にロシア軍の前進を逆転してガリツィアやロシア領ポーランドから追い出すことができるようになるまでには、それから1年を要したのである。

投稿日時 - 2019-06-22 10:51:41

お礼

回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2019-06-22 16:29:49

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