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When the offensive failed, Falkenhayn ordered the capture of Ypres to gain a local advantage. By 18 November, the First Battle of Ypres ended in failure, at a cost of 160,000 German casualties. In December 1914, the British Admiralty began discussions with the War Office, for a combined operation to re-occupy the Belgian coast but eventually the British were obliged to participate in French offensives further south. Large British offensive operations in Flanders were not possible in 1915, due to the consequent lack of resources. The Germans conducted their own Flanders offensive at the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April – 15 May 1915), making the Ypres salient more costly to defend. Sir Douglas Haig succeeded Sir John French as Commander-in-Chief of the BEF on 19 December 1915. A week after his appointment, Haig met Vice-Admiral Sir Reginald Bacon, who emphasised the importance of obtaining control of the Belgian coast, to end the threat posed by German U-boats. Haig was sceptical of a coastal operation, believing that a landing from the sea would be far more difficult than anticipated and that an advance along the coast would require so much preparation, that the Germans would have ample warning. Haig preferred an advance from Ypres, to bypass the flooded area around the Yser and the coast, before a coastal attack (Operation Hush) was attempted, to clear the coast to the Dutch border. Minor operations took place in the Ypres salient in 1916, some being German initiatives to distract the Allies from the preparations for the offensive at Verdun and later attempts to divert Allied resources from the Battle of the Somme. Other operations were begun by the British to regain territory or to evict the Germans from ground overlooking their positions. Engagements took place on 12 February at Boesinghe and on 14 February at Hooge and Sanctuary Wood. There were actions from 14–15 February and 1–4 March at The Bluff, 27 March – 16 April at the St. Eloi Craters and the Battle of Mont Sorrel from 2–13 June.

投稿日時 - 2017-05-28 14:02:00

QNo.9334378

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>When the offensive failed, Falkenhayn ordered the capture of Ypres to gain a local advantage. By 18 November, the First Battle of Ypres ended in failure, at a cost of 160,000 German casualties. In December 1914, the British Admiralty began discussions with the War Office, for a combined operation to re-occupy the Belgian coast but eventually the British were obliged to participate in French offensives further south. Large British offensive operations in Flanders were not possible in 1915, due to the consequent lack of resources.
⇒攻撃が失敗したとき、ファルケンハインは局地の利をとるべくイープルの攻略を命じた。11月18日までに160,000人のドイツ兵の犠牲を払って、「第1回イープルの戦い」は失敗に終わった。1914年12月、英国の海軍本部は、ベルギー沿岸部を再占拠する合同作戦活動のために陸軍省との議論を開始したが、結局は、英国軍が更に南でフランス軍の攻撃に参加しなければならなくなった。フランドルでの大規模な英国軍の攻撃活動は、それに伴う資源の欠乏のため、1915年中は不可能だった。

>The Germans conducted their own Flanders offensive at the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April – 15 May 1915), making the Ypres salient more costly to defend. Sir Douglas Haig succeeded Sir John French as Commander-in-Chief of the BEF on 19 December 1915. A week after his appointment, Haig met Vice-Admiral Sir Reginald Bacon, who emphasised the importance of obtaining control of the Belgian coast, to end the threat posed by German U-boats.
⇒ドイツ軍は、「第2回イープルの戦い」(1915年4月22日-5月15日)で自発のフランドル攻撃を実行して、イープル突出部を防御するのがより高くつくようになった。ダグラス・ヘイグ卿は、1915年12月19日にBEFの総司令官として、ジョン・フレンチ卿の後を継いだ。拝命の1週間後に、ドイツのUボートでもたらされる脅威を終わらせるために、ヘイグは副提督レジナルド・ベーコン卿と会談したところ、彼はベルギー海岸の制御権を握ることの重要性を強調した。

>Haig was sceptical of a coastal operation, believing that a landing from the sea would be far more difficult than anticipated and that an advance along the coast would require so much preparation, that the Germans would have ample warning. Haig preferred an advance from Ypres, to bypass the flooded area around the Yser and the coast, before a coastal attack (Operation Hush) was attempted, to clear the coast to the Dutch border.
⇒ヘイグは、沿岸の作戦活動について懐疑的であった。それというのも、海からの上陸は予想されるよりはるかに難しいし、海岸に沿って前進するのは、ドイツ軍に十分な警告を呼び、それだけ大変な準備を必要とすると思ったからである。ヘイグは、イープルからの進軍を好んだので、オランダと境界を接する海岸を一掃するための沿岸攻撃(ハッシュ作戦行動)を試みる前に、イゼールと海岸周辺の水害地を迂回した(迂回する進軍を試みた)。

>Minor operations took place in the Ypres salient in 1916, some being German initiatives to distract the Allies from the preparations for the offensive at Verdun and later attempts to divert Allied resources from the Battle of the Somme. Other operations were begun by the British to regain territory or to evict the Germans from ground overlooking their positions. Engagements took place on 12 February at Boesinghe and on 14 February at Hooge and Sanctuary Wood. There were actions from 14–15 February and 1–4 March at The Bluff, 27 March – 16 April at the St. Eloi Craters and the Battle of Mont Sorrel from 2–13 June.
⇒1916年に、イープル突出部で小規模な作戦活動が起こったが、その幾つかはヴェルダンでの攻撃に対する準備から連合国軍を散らすためのドイツ軍の発動であり、その後に「ソンムの戦い」から連合国軍の資源を流用する試みであった。他の活動は、(英国軍)陣地を見渡している地面からドイツ軍を追いたてるか、あるいはその領域を獲得するために英国軍から始められたものであった。会戦は、ボエジンゲで2月12日に、フージとサンクチュアリー・ウッド(聖なる森)で2月14日に起こった。作戦行動は、ブラフ(断崖)で2月14-15日および3月1-4日に、サン・エロワ・クレーターで3月27日-4月16日に、「モン・ソレルの戦い」で6月2-13日に、それぞれあった。

投稿日時 - 2017-05-30 16:10:44

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回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2017-05-30 20:35:22

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