Many Americans believe that disputes should be settled by the disputing parties
without outside help. Parents often send their children back to the playroom or
playground with instructions to settle fights for themselves. Relatives and friends can be
heard to say, "It's between the two of you. I'm not getting in the middle." Even
psychologists tend to regard it as a sign of maturity when someone settles disputes
without third parties, Whose participation may be regarded as unhealthy.
Yet many peoples of the world expect conflicts to be resolved by third parties. This
reflects an emphasis on harmony and interdependence:the tendency to see individuals
as located in a social network,in contrast to the American tendency to over-emphasize
independence and see the individual as the fundamental human unit. To manage
disputes ranging from quarrels between family members to conflicts between villages,
cultures develop informalrules and formal proceedings,just as Americans have
assumptions about fairfights as well as legal trials.In contrast to the American Why
of settling disputes, however,the participation ofthe community is an important part of
the proceedings. Americans cannot simply adopt the rituals of another culture, but
thinking about these rituals can give them ideas for devising their own new ways to
manage conflicts.
In native Hawaiian culture,there is a word, ho'oponopono ("to setthings right"),for a
ceremony in Which family members invite an older person or a respected member of the
community to watch overthe resolution of a dispute. The leader invites the disputing
parties to talk about their feelings and encourages them to apologize to and forgive each
other. The leader calls on a higher power -God and Church - to offer forgiveness,
On the island of Tanna in the South Pacific, conflicts among villagers or between
villages are discussed publicly by groups of adult men at special meetings that last all
day. These meetings are very different from the American idea of conflict resolution
in thatthey are not designed to reconcile the individual accounts of disputing parties
and draw from them the truth of what happened. These meetings are not competitions
or battles among opposing interests;they are joint journeys in Which all travelers reach
the same destination. All the people present, disputing parties as well as others, come
to a public agreement about what happened and how the conflict should be settled
Usually, one party is not blamed;instead it is shown that both parties are somewhat
responsible. These meetings do not always settle disputes once and for all, but atleast
they offer an opportunity for settlement.

投稿日時 - 2012-11-22 00:40:38











※1:American Whyだと意味が通らないので、American wayかなと思いそのように訳しました。


投稿日時 - 2012-11-22 16:08:10